Dieu ma ramené à la vie (French Edition)

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Oui, je sais, c'est dur. Sois fort Pas la peine de compliquer les choses Bien entendu, on n'oublie pas les merveilleux "Les gens y croivent que Nous on est preneuses, on adore! D'une part parce que c'est insultant pour les truies et d'autre part parce que l'ex n'aime pas beaucoup qu'on remette en question ses performances sexuelles. Ahhh Sonia, comme j'aime cet article!

Genre je vais mettre cette robe ce soir? Sinon, le "sur" Paris, ca m'a toujours fait rigoler! C'est trop typiquement Et tu as raison, il ne veut rien dire mais les gens comprennent, et c'est bien l'essentiel. Et j'aime beaucoup ton expression Canadienne!!! Les deux sont corrects.

Mais tu sais pourquoi elle m'agace Mme Politiquement Correct, Sonia? Tu vas jamais me croire. Si si, je te jure. J'ai perdu toutes mes illusions. T'sais quoi? Tu as raison. Mon honneur est sauf. Enfoirage affectif?! Alors moi ce qui m'amuse ce ne pas vraiment une expression ce sont les gens qui font des liaisons qui n existent pas, du genre cent zeuros ; bisous.

Tu veux dire les gens qui "croivent que"? Au plaisir d'avoir ton retour sur ce festin seksuel. Sinon je parles des "clients finals", qui est a priori correct, car finaux c'est pas finaud. Pour pallier le manque de.. Mais il existe un excellent bouquin de Pivot : "Ne dites pas Variante : je m'en souviens. Vous avez vu que Renault a sorti une nouvelle 'tiote clito"? Pas trop de gaz? Et sinon tu savais qu'on ne dit pas "Mariage pluvieux, mariage heureux"?

En fait c'est "Mariage plus vieux, mariage heureux. Un objet n'a pas de main! Je pense que cette expression est traduite directement de l'anglais. Mais mieux Quand mon beau-fils nous dit: "je m'ai J'adore cette note ouais, je m'auto-congratule. Nan, en fait : j'apprends plein de choses Mais sa petite soeur de 3 ans parle mieux que lui Des bisouilles! Au lieu de primordial. C'est pour cette raison que je ne comprends rien au langage sms. J'ai appris juste hier qu'on ne disait pas "C'est seize heure" mais "il est seize heure" Mais j'y comprend pas pourquoi!

On dit "C'est Sophie" car on peut voir et toucher Sophie. En vrai, qu'est-ce que vous dites par chez vous? C'est comme le "je vais au Docteur". Sonia, permettez-moi de vous le dire : je vous aime. Merci encore. Les guillemets avec les doigts!!! Mais c'est tellement mignon! Je ne supporte pas. Et elle a la monnaie pour sa baguette?

Moi : Ben oui, elle vous remercie. Pour la monnaie, elle sait pas, elle va regarder dans son portefeuille Tiens hier j'ai vu la Sonia Alors toutes ces expressions Belgiquiennes, j'avoue que je ne connaissais pas! A part le : Bon, ben on se dit quoi? Ca me gratte!!! Les pet peeves Auquel cas on peut mettre 'ceci'. Bon en fait je vais faire de l'aquagym au spa de ma ville Raaaah, merci merci!!

Tout cela est bel et bon. On dit donc "mettre au jour"??? Si si, pour de vrai! Ben si justement, c'est cela qu'il faut dire. Nous sommes deux alors C'est pareil avec "avoir l'air"? Du coup, c'est elle a l'air fin, et non fine?! Et je ne! Je pense que oui, tu as raison. Mais si quelqu'un passe par ici et pouvait nous le confirmer, ce serait sympa. Prend z'en n'en a qui n'en boivent!!!! Oh merci Sonia! Au temps pour moi une explication? J'avais aussi entendu dire que c'etait employe par les musiciens d'orchestre qui lors d'une erreur souhaitaient s'excuser et indiquer l'endroit ou reprendre Donne le me.

Je l'ai eu fait. Je vais te porter en voiture. Je comprends. Y a aussi le fameux "je me baLLade" Et j'oublie: on dit "j'ai ouvrir la porte" Or avec Mc Do, c'est pas le cas Les deux, mon capitaine! Et mes oreilles ont mal quand j'entends "c'est qu'est ce que j'dis" ou "c'est qu'est ce que j'fais" ou le "c'est qui qui Sinon, j'ai une cliente qui demande toujours un postiche pour prendre des notes un post-it.

Ben ouais, moi qui suis une picarde au surplus isarienne : je dis toujours " faire " de l'essence Je ne vous ai pas dit J'ai une entretien avec une pharmacie qui vend beaucoup de grandes marques dont Sonia nous parle pour le millefeuille. Quand vous allez sur un site de parapharmacie, comment l'aimez-vous? Ah ah ah!!! J'en bafferai plus d'un. Muchas gracias et bonne bourre comme on dit! T'es heureuse hein? Plus qu'en france je pense! Je crois qu'ils ont pas tout compris Ma maman elle parle super bien et tout!!!

Tu connaissais toi? Je sais c'est magnifique.

90+ Popular Expressions and Idioms Translated into French

Exemples : — tu prends quel train ce soir? Excellent et tellement vrai. Et tellement d'autres encore Sophie, merci pour ce rappel. The concluding scene in which Sara is a character is similar to the D. Now blessid be that lorde souereigne 1. Of the English plays which deal with the Abraham and Isaac story only Ch. Whatever be the explanation of these facts it is clear that the mystery plays of the various districts of the Midland and Northern counties were not unknown in other parts of the same counties.

None of these plays except D. It is not impossible, indeed, that the mystery plays of the different European countries were more closely related than has ever been supposed. At any rate it is difficult to explain the fact that ideas and incidents are common to versions of different countries, which, are not found in the account given in Genesis, and which, if they have developed naturally from the dramatic treatment of the subject, are at least very striking. Abraham is lying on a bed when the angel brings to him the command of God as in Le Viel Testament He warns Isaac not to let Sara know that they are going, and issues a similar injunction to the two servants : Cf.

He orders the servants also to prepare whatever will be necessary for a six days' journey as in Beza's play. A striking resemblance to Beza's play occurs " dipoi cominciano a edificare un altare in sul monte " when we return to Sara, who complains to her household regarding the pain she endures in the absence of Abraham and Isaac. Referring to his mother Isaac says : " Se fussi a questo loco io non morrei, Con tanti voti, preghi ed umilitade Pregheresti il Signor, ch'io camperei.

Shee woulde kneele downe upon her knee, Prainge you, father, if yt may be, For to save my liffe.


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Isaac then prays God to forgive his sins and asks his father to pardon his disobedience and to bless him. Abraham prays God to bless Isaac and gives him his own blessing details that we have noticed in several of the plays which we have con- sidered. After they have returned to Sara and she has re- covered from her amazement, she praises God, and then " Sarraet tutti gli altri di casa, eccetto Abram e quelli dua. Rouanet has pointed out.

Speaking of the passage in the Spanish play " ou Isaac prie son pere de lui bander les yeux, afin qu'il ne puisse voir le couteau qui va 1'egor- ger," M. Rouanet says : " Cette idee, non exprimee dans la Bible, se trouve dans le Mistere du Viel Testament, vers On la remarque aussi dans les Chester-Plays. The lines referred to in El Sacreficio de Abraham are the following: " Y as mis ojos de cubrir porque a vezes se levanta yra al tienpo del morir, y por no ver decendir el cuchillo a la garganta.

It is in the main a line for line translation, and the order of the lines is very rarely disturbed. Occasionally, however, one line is expanded into two, e.

40 Hadith Qudsi en français et arabe

Occasionally, too, the order of the lines is transposed, e. The only omission I have noted is of lines 5 and 6 of Beza's play. Abbreviations of Beza's text are much rarer than expansions ; compare, however, When Beza's tetrameters are trans- lated into pentameters the number of lines is sometimes reduced slightly, and it is in these passages that the author's necessity of filling out the verse reacts unhappily upon the 1 La Rappresentazione di Abraam, e Isaac suo Figliuolo Brit. The 'rappresentazione ' is also to be found in Le Rappresen-. The necessity of finding a rhyme has sometimes forced Golding to change the meaning slightly, 1.

In many verses one or both of Beza's rhyme-words have been retained, and the temptation to do so has sometimes betrayed Golding into wrenching the English accent or other- wise using imperfect rhymes, e. The literal character of the translation is illustrated by the fact that the repetition of words either for the sake of emphasis or in passages of intense emotion which characterizes especially the speeches of Abra- ham is reproduced almost invariably by Golding. On the whole the translation is a piece of excellent idiomatic English, and the noble dignity of the song of Abraham and Sara, which departs entirely from Beza's metre is not unworthy of the Elizabethan age, and may serve as an example of that rare phenomenon a translator's surpassing his original.

The great majority of Golding 's verses are in pentameter couplets as are a large proportion of those in the original. Many passages which Beza wrote in tetrameters, however, have been translated into pentameters, e. Sara's speech On the other hand Golding occasionally translates pentameters into tetrameters, e. In some passages the verse shows a tendency toward end-stopt lines, but of the pentameter verses in the play show " enjambement.

Alternately rhyming pentameters occur only in lines Occasionally the final line of a speech, or a speech which contains but a single line, is left out of the rhyme scheme. Finished at Povvles Belchamp in Essex, the xi. Abraham beleued God, and it was imputed to him for righteousnes. T is now a two yeares, since God graunted me the grace to forsake the countrie where he is persecuted, to serue him accordinge to his holy will.


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During which time, because that in my aduersity many fancies ranne in my head, I resorted to Gods word, where I founde two thinges that comforted me marue- lously. The one is the infinite number of promises vttered by the mouth of him which is the truth it selfe, whose sayinges are alwayes matched with effect.

Which thing we must needes see to haue come to passe, if we consider by what meanes Gods truth hath bene mayntayned to this present time. Howebeit among all them that are set afore vs for example in the olde testa- ment. I finde three persons, in whome to my seeming the L,orde ment to set forth his greatest wonders : namely, Abraham, Moises, and Dauid : in the Hues of whome if men would nowe a dayes looke uppon them selues, they should knowe them selues better then they doe.

Therefore I gaue my selfe as then to more holy matters, hoping to go forwarde in them afterwarde, specially in the translating of the Psalmes which I am now in hand with. And because it holdeth more of the 'One then c: the other : I thought best to name it a tragedie. As touching the ma- ner of dealing, I haue altered some small circumstances of the storie, to apply my selfe to the company e. And although the affecti- ons be very great, yet haue I absteined from wordes and speeches to farre estraunged from the common ordinarie, notwithstan- ding that I know it was the maner of the Greekes and Latines so to doe, specially in their chorusses, as they termed them.

But I passed so litle of imitating them, that contrariwise me thinkes nothing is more vnseemely, than those forced translations and speeches drawne out of such a length, as they can neuer come to the pith of the matter : whereof I report me to Aristopha- nes, who iustly rebuketh the Poets of his time for it so often times. As touching the ortogra- phie, I haue willed the Printer to folio we the common order, notwithstanding the fond fancies that haue ben set forth with- in these three or fower yeares in that be- half e.

And I would gladly counsel the for- wardest of them that haue altered it, if they were men that would take any other bodies counsell then their owne that sith they will needes reduce it to the pronoun- cing, that is to say, make as many fashions of wri tinge, not onely as there are count- ries, but also as ther are persons in Fraunce : they should first learne to pronounce, be- fore they teach men to write. Which thinge I speake not to blame all those that haue set downe their dowts in [9] To THE READER that behalf, which I graunt are very need- full to be reformed : but for such as sette forth their dotages as certeine rules for al the world to follow.

Furthermore, as tou- ching the profit that may be taken of this singular storie, besides the things that are treated of it in infinite places of the Scri- pture, I will refer it to Lim that shal speake of it in the conclusion : praying you who- soeuer you be to accept this my small labour with as good will as I of- fer it to you. From Lausan the first of October. Fteruuard God tryed Abraham, and sayd unto him : Abraham.

And he aunsuuered, Here I am. And uuhen he had cut uuood for the burnt sacrifice, he arose and uuent to the place that God had told him of. Then sayd Isaac to Abraham his father. My father. Abraham aunsuuered, here I am my sonne. And he said, Beholde here is fire and uuood, but uuhere is the Lambe for burnt sacrifice. A braham aun- suuered, my sonne, God uuill prouide him a lambe for burnt sacrifice. And they uuent on both togither. Then an Angell of the Lord cryed unto him from heauen, saying Abraham y Abraham.

Uuho aunsuuered, loe here I am. And he sayd unto him, lay not thy hand upon the child, nother doe any thing unto him.

Cette vie est dédiée à la liberté — Par la grâce de Dieu, je suis venu ici pour vous

Then Abraham uuent and tooke the sheepe, and offered it up for a burnt offering in steede of his sonne. And Abraham called the name of the place, The Lord shall see. Uuhereof it is say d at this day of that moun- teyne, The Lord shal be seene. And all nations of the earth shall be blessed in thy seede, because thou hast obeyed my wyce.

The speakers. The Prologue. Abraham Sara Isaac A companie of shepherds of Abrahams ouune house diui- ded in tuuo partes. The Angell. It is now long, at least as seemes to me, since here such preace togither I did see. To hold your peace alonly I require. We nother can nor will away with that. But yit you must, or else I tell you flat, That both of vs our labour lose togither, In speaking I, and you in comming hither.

Wherefore now harken : for the thing is great [ You thinke your selues perchaunce to be in place, Where as you be not, now as standes the case. For Lausan is not here, it is far re hence. But yit when neede requires, I will dispence [ As now this is the land of Palestine.

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I say yit further to you, see you well It is the house wherein doth dwell A seruaunt of the liuing Gods, whose name Hight Abraham the righteous man, the same Whose liuely faith hath won him endles fame. And lastly you shall see him iustified By faith, for killing in a certeine wise Isaac his dearest sonne in sacrifice.

And shortly, you shall see straunge passions : 4O. And that it is so, many a faithfull wight, Anon shall beare me record in your sight. Now are not these sufficient witnessings? Loe how thou makes t mortall men to see, Thy passing goodnes by calamitie. And as of nought thou madest euery thing ; fio. Was neuer wight so blessed at thy hand, That could thy greatnes fully understand. But unto him that richest is in fee, [ Yea Lord, thou knowest I wist not whither then [ I am so rauisht in my thought and mind, That as I would full fayne no meane I find The least of all the benefits to commend, [ Yit sith alone with thee Lord here I am, I will thee thanke at least wise as I can.

But is not yun my husband whom I see? I thought he had bin further of from me. Come on, and let us both giue thankes togither For Gods great mercy since our comming hither The frute thereof as both of us hath found : [ Contented Sir, how might I better doe, Than you to please in all you set me too? And euen therefore hath God ordeyned me. Agein, wherein can time spent better be, [ Of truth no better can a man deuise, Than of the Lord to sing the excellence, [ The Song of Abraham and Sara.

Come on then, let us now begin to sing with hartes in one accord, [ His onely hand doth giue us whatsoeuer We haue, or shall hereafter haue for euer. It is alonly he that doth mainteine [ Alas good Lord! Thou of thy goodnes drewest us away from places that are giuen To serue false gods : and at this present day [ The land of Egypt in our chiefest neede thou madst to haue a care, [ Foure mightie Kinges that were already gon [ And so I saw the feeldes all stained red With blud of those which through my sword lay dead. To us and unto our posteritie this land belongs of right, To hold in honor and felicitie as God it hath behight, [ And thou O Lord whom we doe know to be the true and liuing God, [ Go to my Sara, that great God of ours [ Now let us hence and chiefly take good heede, We hazard not our sonne to much in deede, [ A new made vessell holdeth long the sent Of that that first of all is in it pent.

A child by nature nere so well dispozed, [ Sir, I doe hope my dewtie for to doe, Therefore the thing that we must looke unto, Is that Gods will may be fulfild in him. Right sure I am we shall him weeld so trim, [ Satan in the habit of a Monke. I goe, I come, I trauell night and day, I beate my braynes, that by no kind of way My labour be in any wise misspent.

God reignes aboue, and I doe reigne belowe : God causeth loue, and I doe hatred so we. God made the starrie skies and earthy clodds : [ God serued is by Angells full of light : And doe not my faire Angells glister bright? I trow there is not one of all my swine, Whose grooyn I make not godlike for to shine.. God neuer made a thing so perfect yit, [ But I haue made, whereof I glory may A thowsand worser than my selfe farre way. And others haue conceiued in their brayne, [ For I, than who, of all none worse can be, [ These thinges shall in their time without all faile Be brought to passe.

As now I will assaile One Abraham, who onely with his race Withstands me, and defies me to my face. But I will lay such loade upon his backe, That as. I know that he doth take The true Creator for his onely hold To trust unto : and that doth make him bold. In deede he hath alliance with the trew Creator, who hath promist him a new [ But what for that? If stedfastnes him faile To hold out still : what shall his hope auaile?

I trow I will so many blowes him giue, [ His elder sonne I feare not : and the other Shal hardly scape these hands of mine : the mother Is but a woman : as for all the meynie That serue him, they be simple sowles as enie [ But hence I will and worke so out of hand, To haue them, that unlesse I misse my marke, [ Abraham camming out of his house agein sayth.

Lord here I am. But yit my God, the thing thou putst me to Seemes very straunge and irksom for to be Lord, I beseech thee, wilt thou pardon me? I well perceiue and plainly now doe find, That thou art angrie with me in thy mind. Alas my Lord I haue offended thee. And wilt thou cast thy seruaunt downe so farre? Alas my sonne, alas, what shall I doe? This matter askes aduised looking too. A companie of Shepherdes camming out of Abrahams house. The one halfe of them.

The other halfe. Euen so thinkes me. For if we all togither were [ How Sirs, I pray you tary. Will You leaue me so behind you still? In deede a child of honest kind, And well brought up, ought euermore [ I will not fayle it if I may To die therefore : but will ye stay A while untill I ronne and know [ She p. Yea, therefore goe. O happy is the wight That grounds him selfe aright On God, and maketh him his shield And lets the worldly wize, [ No rich, ne poore estate, Can puffe or yit abate, The godly and the faithfull hart : [ The mighty God him leeds, In chief est of his needes, [ Whereof a proofe we see [ But streit on sute to God, The king through Gods sharp rod, Did yeeld to him his wife streit way, And Abraham neuer stayd, [J But as the king him prayd, Departed thence without delay.

And during this his flight, He grew to so good plight, That Loth to part away was faine : [ There fell a sodeyn iarre Betweene nine Kings through warre, [] Wherein fiue kings were put to flight, And Loth him selfe, with all His goods both great and small, Away was caried cleane and quite. And of the reskewd pray The tenth to the Freest did pay. And hauing done ech man his right, Returned home anon, With commendacion, [ But nother sonne he had, Nor daughter him to glad. Which thing when Sara did perceiue, She put her maid in bed, [ So Agar bare a sonne A thirteene yeares outronne, Whose name is called Ismael.

Then for the couenants sake Which God him selfe did make, I] Betwene him and our maister deere, Our maister and we all, As well the great as small, At once all circumcized were. My fellowes : God hath shewed himself e to us, [ I would haue gone with you As you doe know to see full fayne : but now [ Abraham and Sara.

But it behoueth us to understand, That if God will us any thing to doe, We must streyt wayes obedient be thereto, And nother striue nor speake against his will. But yit I pray you thinke not straunge, that I Doe take this matter somewhat heauily. A good hart wife doth shew it self at neede. We haue but this child onely and no mo Who yit is weake : in him stands all the trust Of all our hope, with him it falls to dust. Nay rather in God. But giue me leaue to say.

Yea, but will God haue us to hazard him? No hazarding it is where God doth gard him, Sara. I nother dread nor dowt of any hap. There is in hand some secret enterpryze. What ere it be, it doth from God aryze. At least, if what it were you wist. For that our God will well ynough prouide. Yea but the wayes now full of daungers are.

Who dyes in following God needs neuer care. God doth foresett mens dying times al wayes. It were much better here to sacrifyze. A braham. What euer you thinke, God thinks otherwise. Well then Sir, sith it must be so [ Adiew my sonne. Good mother eke adieu. My sonne obey thy father still, 'And God thee saue : that if it be his will Thou mayst in health returne right soone agein. Say on my sonne : for I am well content [ I humbly doe you pray To put this greef away.

My fellowes : we haue now to goe Good six daies iorney ere we rest : [ See that your cariages be prest And all the things that we shall neede. The Compauie. Sir, as for that let us take heede. Doe you no more but onely shew your will. On then : and God be with you still. Deale wisely howsoeuer that you fare : [ Alas alas full litle wote I When I shall see you all ageine. The Lord now with you all remayne. The Companie. God guide, and keepe you through his grace, Abraham. Gowe on Sirs, let us hence apace.

But is not this ynough to make me mad, That whereas I make euery man to gad, [ Behold he is departed from this place Gods will full bent tobey in euery cace, Although the matter neuer be so straunge. But yit it may be that his mind will chaunge, [ For if he doe, then Isaac shall be dead, Whereby my hart shall be deliuered Of that same feare least God in him fulfill, [ That is the marke whereat I alwayes shoote, Now hye thee Cowle, set forth the better foote : Lets ronne apace, and by some cunning drift Foyle him in feeld, or put him to his shift.

Here must you tarry : as for me, I will With Isaac, goe yit further onward still, Unto a place from hence yet distant more [ Wherefore in any wyze Abide you here, and stirre not hence. But thou Sonne Isaac shalt goe with me as now : [ The Shepherds Sir, sith you forbid us we will not hence.

This bundle unto him betake, And I the fire and knife will take. Pray ye to God both for your selues and us. Alas, alas, was neuer wyght, ywus. We will not fayle. That had such neede as I. Well Sirs, I say no more but God be wy. And with you too. Halfe the Shepherds. It greatly mazeth me. And me likewyze. And me too, for too see Him so dismayd which hath so stowtly borne All haps that haue befalne him heretooforne. To say he is afrayd of warre [ And as for howshold matters, what Can he desire which he hath nat?

He Hues in outward peace and rest : [ Of zunnes he hath but onely pne But in the world mo such are none. His cattell thryue in such great store, As God doth seeme to giue him more, [ Nothing ye can so perfect haue, But alwaies sumwhat is amisse. I pray to God him so to blisse, As soone to cure this his disease.

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The song of the Shepherds. Almighty God which all mainteynes, Can nothing spie that ay remaynes, Except him selfe : all else ech one [ The sunne with bright and burning beames Goes casting forth his cheer efull gleames, As long as day in skie doth last. Then darksom night doth ouer cast, [ And of the moone what shall we say, Which neuer keepeth at a stay? Sometimes with homes she doth appeere : [55 O J Sometime halfe fast : now thicke, now cleere Anon with rownd and fulsom face The night she fro the skie doth chace. The twincling starres aboue on hye Ronne rolling rownd about the skye, [] One while with wether fayre and cleere, Another while with lo wring cheere.

Two dayes togither match, and ye Them like in all poynts shall not see. The one doth passe more swift away, [ With purple, greene, blew, white, and red The earth earwhile is ouerspred. Anon a blast of nipping cold [ The riuers with their waters moyst Aboue their bankes are often hoyst, And passe their bownds with rage so farre, That they the plowmans hope doe marre. And therefore whoso doth him grownd, On awght that in the world is fownd, Beneath or in the starrie skyes, [ What then of him is to be sayd, Whose hope on man is wholly stayd? Ech liuing creature subiect is To endlesse inconueniencis : [ What a foole is he, whose hart Thinks to be free from wo and smart, [] So long as he doth Hue on mowld?

But if that any creature wowld Be sure taccumplish that desire : He must goe set his hart more higher. Whereof our maister rightly may [ The best I thinke that can be now espyde, Is for too draw us one asyde, That ech of us may by him selfe alone Pray God to send our maister which is gone, [ I will not be behind I trowe.

A pause. Alas a poore father am I. O my sonne most deere, God will prouide. Abide thou heere I say, While I to God a litle whyle doo pray. Good father go : but yit I pray you showe Me whereupon this greef of yours doth growe, [ At my returne, my sonne, thou shalt know all.

But in the meane tyme pray thy selfe heeretoo. It is good reason that I should so doe. And there withall I will ech thing addresse. This billet first shall gin the order heere : Then this, then that shall cloze togither neere. Thus all these thinges are redie now and prest : My father shall prouide for all the rest.

Sara The more we Hue, the more we see, alas, What life it is that in this world we passe. Was neuer woman borne upon the mowld, [ Of the six dayes three, Alas but three my God, yit passed bee, [ Alas my God which seest me from aboue, Both outwardly and inwardly alway, Vowtsafe to shorten these three yeeres I say, For were they much more shorter than they be, [ O God my God, thou seest my open hart, [ Thou seest, alas thou seest my wofull care. Thou onely canst me rid of my diseaze, By graunting me if that it might thee pleaze [ An other song then this yit must we haue.

Can he deceiue? And can he now unsay his word? But yit it would ensew he should doe so, If he my sonne should take away as now. What say I? O my God, my God, sith thow [ Is it right That I so sinfull and so wretched wight, Should fall to scanning of the iudgements Of thy most perfect pure commaundements. My cace goes ill. O Cowle we must yit find [ It maybe that I haue imagined Amisse : the more it is examined, The more the cace seemes straunge. It was perchaunce Some dreame or wicked feend that at a glaunce [ He cursed Cayne for killing of his brother : And shall I kill myne Isaac and none other?

Neuer doe soe. Forgiue me, Lord, and pluck me backe agein From this leawd race wherein my sin gan go : Lord my God deliuer me from this wo. This hand of mine shall certeinly him smight. Wherfore I will obey. But I will keepe you from it if I may. So doing I should make my God untrew, For he hath told me that there should insew, [ Alas Lord, hast thou made him then for nowght? Alas and can the things repealed be, Which thou so oft hast promist unto me?

For of my sonns, which were no mo but twayn, To put away the one my selfe was fayne : [ But are not thou the selfe same God, which was Contented for too heere me patiently, [ Now then my God and king, wilt thou say nay, When fcx my selfe I unto thee doe pray? O God, at leastwise graunt me yit this grace. Some other man my sonne to death may wownd Alas my Lord, and must this hand of myne [] To sucn a stroke against all kind declyne? If I alledge thy will for my defence, Who will beleue that thou wilt so dispence? I shall be shund of all men more and lesse, As pat erne of extremes t cruelnesse.

And as for thee, who will unto thee pray, [ Alas, may these hore heares of myne abide The sorrow that is likely to betide? Haue I alredy past so many daungers, Haue I so traueld countries that are straungers, [ O hart of mine, clyue, clyue, asunder clyue : [ The speedier death, the lesser is the greef.

Now is he downe, if God send no releef. What sayd I? O my God Which didst create and make me of a clod, [ Out of my natiue countrie thou me drew. And when thou gaue me Isaac, didst not thow [ Then if thou wilt needs take him now away, What should I thereunto ageinst thee say? Take him therfore. Thou knowest best how to shift. I know thou wilt to life him rayze againe, Rather than that thy promis should be vaine, Howbeit Lord, thou knowest I am a man, [ But yit thy power which ay is inuincible, Doth to beleef make all things possible.

Hence flesh, hence fond affections euerychone : Ye humane passions let me now alone. Well, well, then Isaac shall dye : and wee What will insew thereof shall after see. O false old hag, thou makste me soft to grone. And therfore right great need alwaies haue we [ But wotest thou my sonne alas what I Intend to say? What pleaseth you good father. Alas, that word doth kill my hart the rather.

Yit must I better cor age to me take. Father, me thinks that feare hath you dismayd. O my deere child : it is as thou hast sayd. Alas my God. Sir if it may you pleaze, Be bold to tell me what doth you diseaze. My sonne my sonne, beholdest thou this lyne. Thi c wood, this fire, and eke this knife of myne? This geere my Isac serueth all for thee. Alas my sonne. Alas my father deere, Uppon my knees I humbly pray you heere r [ O of mine age the only staffe and stay, My derling, O my derling, faine would I That I for thee a thowsand times might dye : But God will haue it otherwise as now.

Alas alas I want both tung and hand, Ageinst you in mine owne defence to stand. But see, but see my teares for natures sake, None other fence I can or will now make [ I am Isaac, none other But Isaac, your only by my mother. I am your sonne that through your self hath life And will you let it be bereft with knife?

But yit what deeds, what deeds of mine deserue This death O God. Alas poore mother mine. How many deathes shall my death giue to thee? O father mine. Abra Vam. Alas, no whit that nL. Sir I am redy. Who would haue thought he would haue bin so stedie? Now then my father, well I see in deede That I must dye. Lord help me at my neede. My God, my God, now strengthen thou my mind [ Now bind me, kill me, burne me, I am prest To suffer all, sith God so thinks it best. Mercie good God, now for thy mercie deere.

Thou Lord hast made me and created me, Thou Lord upon the earth hast lodged me, Thou hast me giuen the grace to knowledge thee [ And whereas I to you my Lord and father Haue not alwaies such honor yeelded rather, [ Here Isaac is bound. Alas, I go to deepe and darksom night : Farewell as now for ay all worldly light. Was neuer child that spake with better skil. I am ashamde, and therfore take my flight. Alas my sonne, before thou leaue this light And that my hand doe giue thunkindly bio we, [ Isac my sonne, let this same arme of mine Which must thee kil, imbrace this neck of thine.

With right good will and hartie thankes. Ye skyes the great gods woork ay glistring in our eyes [ But now my hand, high time it is that thow Doo gather strength to execute thy vow. Heere the knife falles out of his hand. That by thy killing of mine only sonne, Thy deadly stroke may through my hart eke ronne Isaac. What doe I heere?

Alas my father deere! A, a, a, a. I am at your will. Am I now well? Did euer man so piteous cace yit find? I dye my sonne, I dye before thy face. Away with all this feare of yours I pray. Will you from God yit longer time me stay? Heere he intendeth to stryke him. Alas who euer yit so stowt a mind Alas my sonne I prey thee me forgiue Thy death. It kills me that thou may not Hue. My God heere I am.

Please wait

Into the sheath put up thy knife , [ For now I see before mine eyes, What loue thou bearest to the Lord,. And honor unto him auord, [ O God. O Lord a man may see. Heere he takes the sheepe. How good it is obedient for to bee To thee : the cace is fitly furnished. O Abraham. Lord heere I am. Thus sayth the Lord, I promis thee By my eternall males tie, And by my Godhead : sith that thow [ I will increace thyne offspring more, Than starres in heauen, or sand on shore. Their enmies they shall ouercome, [ By him the treasures of my loue And mightie power, shall from aboue [ It is no lye, it is no peynted tale, It is no feyned iest nor fable stale.

It is a deede, a deede right trew, of one [ Wherefore ye maisters and ye mistresses, Ye Lords and Ladies all both more and lesse, Ye rich and poore, ye sorie and ye sad, And you also whose harts with mirth are glad, Such are trew glasses, shewing to our sight, The fayre, the fowle, the crooked, and the right. Lo maisters heere the happie recompence Which God doth giue you for your gentle silence. To the Readers. Beza's conversion to Pro- testantism took place in A few months after the publi- cation of his Juvjnilia he suffered a severe illness, and on recovering he decided to give up all his brilliant prospects in France in order to go to Geneva, where he might enjoy religious freedom, and where he was to become one of the most famous of the leaders of French Protestantism.

It" was while the first bitterness of exile and of loneliness was strong upon him that he felt the analogy between his fate and that of Abraham who had also suffered much, Depuis le temps que tu m'as retire Hors du pays ou tu riest adore, but who was also conscious of the many blessings which God had showered upon him. The actual prompting to compo- sition may be ascribed to this feeling, to Beza's desire to write a didactic play which should be acted by his students at Lausanne, and to his natural literary instinct, rather than to the more conventional reasons which are here alleged and, indeed, Beza confesses this in part in the next sentence.

Beza here refers to his Juvenilia, published in , a volume of verses almost all of which were written before he was twenty years of age, and which had circulated for some years in manuscript among his friends. They consisted of imitations of Catullus, Ovid and Virgil, and although Beza condemned them in unmeasured terms in his later life they are not really very objectionable. At the time of their publication no one, not even Beza himself, felt that the poems were open to criticism, as is shown by the fact that the young author dedicated the volume to Melchior Wolmar, the eminent scholar in whose school at Orleans both Beza and Calvin had been students.

Before accepting the professorship of Greek in the Academy of Lausanne a few months after his conversion Beza publicly made con- NOTES fession of his sin in having written the Juvenilia, and called the attention of the ecclesiastical council to the book. Indeed it was only on the earnest solicitation of Calvin that he accepted the office, so conscious was he of the degree to which his youth- ful Muse had compromised his standing as a leader in the Reformed Church.

What's ça/cela even mean?

Beza's misgivings were well grounded, for this volume provided his enemies with their strongest argument in their attempt to malign his character and his work. During his lifetime the most bitter of these attacks was made by Hierony- mus Bolsec in his Historia de vita, moribus, doctrina et rebus gestis Theod. In Bolsec had published at Lyons a similar attack on Calvin. This volume was republished at Lyons as late as , 'avec une introduction, des extraits de la vie de Th. Louis-Francois Chastel, Magistrat. That the evil men have done lives after them is illustrated by the following extract from the Intro- duction "le libertinage a double fin, les debauches meme seniles de de Beze, 1'opinion que Ton doit avoir de ses ecrits poetiques ou religieux, de ses sermons, de ses perfidies, de ses persecutions contre ses contradicteurs, de ses provo- cations k des revoltes dont il se tenait par prudence personnel- lement eloigne, nous avouons que nous avons trouve ces details trop degoutants ou trop peu interessants pour les mettre sous les yeux de nos lecteurs.

De Beze est d'ailleurs un personnage trop secondaire pour qu'on s'en occupe long- temps. A copy of the Juvenilia is preserved in the Bodleian Library, the sub-title of which reads Poemata amatoria ab ipso adoles- cente edita et ab ipso post damnata. Twelve others from his pen appeared in , a collection of thirty in , and finally a complete collection of fifty in His death in the following year cut short his work, and Beza's continuation of the task "que i'ay [68] NOTES maintenant en main" bore fruit in , about a year after the publication of Le Sacrifice d' Abraham.

This edition con- tained thirty-four of the psalms. In he republished these, together with forty-nine of those contained in Marot's collection. The remaining sixty-seven did not appear until , in which year at least twenty-five editions were pub- lished of the complete translation of the Psalter a record far surpassing that of any other book of the time.

Les Pseavmes de David, mis en rime Francois e, par Clement Marot et Theodore de Beze has maintained its position as the generally accepted French Psalter even to the present day. Les Pseavmes de David, Paris, The first English version of the French psalter was that published by Arthur Golding in , together with Calvin's Commentaries on the Psalms.

A second edition appeared in Another English translation, the work of Anthony Gilby, was published in , and two more editions of this second version followed in In the Bodleian Library there are copies of all three editions of Gilby 's translation. It is hardly possible that the succeeding lines were not inspired by Beza's opposition to some of the theories promulgated in Joachim du Bellay's Defense et Illustration de la Langue Francois e.

This famous book had appeared about eighteen months before Beza wrote the preface to Le Sacrifice d j Abraham, and had occasioned a storm of criticism. That Beza, the young poet and accom- plished classical scholar, should be in touch with contem- [69] NOTES porary literary theories would seem certain on a priori grounds.

The Quintil Horatian, a celebrated pamphlet attacking Du Bellay's work, had appeared in this very year, , from the pen of another of Wolmar's old students Barthelemy Aneau, who was at this time professor of rhetoric and principal of the college at Lyons. Beza's preface distinctly suggests to us the author's interest in the discussion of these vital questions, and his intellectual sympathy with the "bons esprits que ie cognoy en France," in spite of his own religious preoccupation. In the Defense et Illustration the author is rather contemptuous of much that French literature has as yet produced, "comme rondeaux, ballades, virelais, chants royaux, chansons et autres telles espiceries, qui corrompent le goust de nostre langue et ne servent sin on a porter tesmoignage de notre ignorance" p.

Nevertheless he has unbounded faith in the possibilities of the language. The whole work is an amplification of this statement. In writing the strictures contained in this address to the reader Beza seems to have had in mind especially the fourth chapter of the second book of the Defense et Illustration, the title of which is Quels Genres de Poemes doit elire le Pote Francois. To the 'poete futur' Du Bellay addresses, among others, the following counsels : "Jette-toy a ces plaisans epigrammes, non point comme font aujourd'huy un tas de faiseurs de comtes nouveaux. Distile avecques un stile coulant et non scabreux, ces pitoyables elegies, a 1'exemple d'un Ovide, d'un Tibule et d'un Properce, y entremeslant quelquefois de ces fables anciennes.

Si tu ne voulois, a 1'exemple des anciens, en vers heroiques. Sonne-moy ces beaux sonnets non moins docte que plaisante invention italienne Pour le sonnet doncques tu as Petrarque et quelques modernes Italiens " p. In the sixth chapter of the second book D'lnventer des Mots, etc. In these extracts I have italicized the words and phrases to which, it would seem, Beza refers directly. In working over the material of a mystery play into an approximation to the form of a Greek drama, however, Beza follows the injunctions of Du Bellay : "Quant aux comedies et tragedies, si les roys et les republiques les vouloient restituer en leur ancienne dignite, qu'ont usurpee les farces et moralites je seroy bien d 'opinion que tu t'y employasses, et si tu le veux faire pour l'ornement de ta langue, tu scais oil tu en dois trouver les archetypes" p.

Du Bellay, Oeuvres Com- pletes, ed. Leon Seche, Paris, , Tome i. It may be added that Arthur Golding, too, did also " desyre too enryche [his] native language with thinges not hertoofore published in the same. Macbeth, III, i, 1. A reference to the Juvenilia. The volume contained "vier Sylven, zwolf Elegien, viele Epitaphien und dann nehmen die Epigramme fast die letzte Halfte des Buches em. For an analysis of the contents of the Juvenilia see pages Baum reprints several of the pieces pp.

His judg- ment of the volume is summed up in the following sentence : NOTES "Wer Sinn fur Poesie hat wird Beza und Wolmarn danken dasz sie tins diese mannichfaltigen, in iippiger Natiirlichkeit ausgeschossenen Jugenderzeugnisse nicht vorenthalten haben" p. They did not even refer speci- fically to the drama, and the distinction between them had to do more frequently with considerations of style or the charac- ter of the ending than with the predominance of the more serious or lighter matter.

In dedicating the Paradiso to Can Grande della Scala, Dante gives his reasons for calling his great epic a comedy : " Ed e la Commedia un certo genere di poetica narrazione, di verso da ogni altro. Quanto alia materia, dif- ferisce dalla tragedia, perch e questa in principio e ammirabile e quieta, nel fino od esito sozza ed orribile. Laddove la Commedia incomincia con alcun che di awerso, ma termina felicemente. Parimente la Tragedia e la Commedia tengono differente modo nel parlare : Tuna, alto e sublime; 1'altra, dimesso e umile.

II, Prosa ii y Glose. A distinction similar to that of Dante is given in the Catholicon of Johannes Januensis : "differunt tragoedia et comoedia, quia comedia privatorum hominum continet facta, tragoedia regum et magnatum. Item comoedia humili stilo describitur tragoedia alto. Item comoedia a tristibus incipit sed cum laetio desinit, tragoedia e contrario.

In the prologue to the Amphitryon of Plautus there is a discussion as to whether the play is to be a comedy or a tragedy and it is assumed that the question is to be decided by the worldly dignity of the dramatis persona : since a servant is to be introduced besides the kings and gods who are the chief characters the author decides to call the play a tragi-comedy. Another point of resemblance between this prologue and Beza's [72] NOTES may be mentioned here : in both great profit is promised to the audience if they will but preserve silence during the pre- sentation of the play.

I cared so little. Haud in magno ponam discrimine. Beza probably refers to The Frogs For the reflexive use of the verb ' report, ' see the Century Dictionary, s. Laing, Preface. In the Defense et Illustration Du Bellay has only a passing and non-commital reference to the subject "si Porthographe francoise n'eust point ete depravee par les praticiens. J'approuve et loue grandement les raisons de ceux qui 1'ont voulu reformer; mais voyant que telle nouveau- te desplaist autant aux doctes comme aux indoctes, j'aime beaucoup mieux louer leur intention que la suy vre.

Du Bellay 's well-known friendship for Pele- tier would naturally dispose him to look kindly on the new theories. Ronsard had announced in the " Avertissement " to his Odes, which were published in the same year , his determination to follow to a great extent the principles laid down by Maigret. As this work was the first of those written in confessed conformity to the doctrines of the Pleiade, the [73] NOTES author's attitude to the new theories regarding spelling reform would have the effect of identifying the Pleiade with the move- ment.

It is quite possible, if not probable, that Beza wrote the criticisms we are considering when he was fresh from a perusal of Du Bellay's or Ronsard's preface. The similarity of Beza's language to that of Du Bellay quoted in the extract given above is at least worthy of attention. The question of spelling reform was one of general concern in the sixteenth century. An interesting reference to the anomalies which Englishmen felt existed in the preservation of an orthography which no longer corresponded to the pro- nunciation of the language is found in Baret's Alvearie under the letter E : "Then must both we and many other nations, geld out many idle dumme E, ees, especially in the latter end of our wordes, As glasse, rodde, etc.

In he pub- lished at Geneva De Francicae linguae recta pronunciatione tractatus, now one of the rarest of his works a copy is in the Bodleian , but accessible in a reprint Paris, , i2mo. In and he published short treatises on the pronuncia- tion of Latin and Greek.

A copy of the latter is preserved in the Bodleian in a small octavo volume the title of which is De vera pronuntiatione Gr. Quorum primus qui est De pronuntiatione Graecae linguae Theod. Bezam autorem habet. The Argument. Line 4. A common enough Elizabethan usage frequently met in Golding.

Within the courts is preace Of common people. XII, I. Rouse ed. Line 9. XI, ; Bk. XII, Nares derives it from "alone," V. Glossary, s. It is certainly used in this sense whenever it occurs in the present play. The corresponding adjective form is also used : "There lives the phoenix one alone bird ever. The Scottish form is " allanerlie.