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Other Required and Solo parts follow the strings:. Instruments shown in parenthesis are optional and may be omitted. The Beethoven example is typical of much Classical and early Romantic fare. In this case, the winds are all doubled 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons , and there are two each horns and trumpets.
There is no low brass. There is tympani. Strings are a standard configuration 4 first violin, 4 second violin, 3 viola, 2 cello, 2 bass. Sometimes strings are simply listed as "str," which means strings. The second example is common for a concert band or wind ensemble piece. Note the inclusion of the saxes after bassoon for this band work. Note also that the separate euphonium part is attached to trombone with a plus sign. For orchestral music, saxes are at the end see Saxophones below. Multiples, if any, are not shown in this system.
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The numbers represent only distinct parts, not the number of copies of a part. In the third example, we have a rather extreme use of the system. Note: This system lists Horn before Trumpet. This is standard orchestral nomenclature. Also, it should be noted that Euphonium can be doubled by either Trombone or Tuba. Typically, orchestra scores have the tuba linked to euphonium, but it does happen where Trombone is the principal instead.
Saxophones , when included in orchestral music they rarely are will be shown in the "other instrument" location after strings and before the soloist, if any. Letters that are duplicated as in A in this example indicate multiple parts. Hickeys Music Center. Available for trumpets with piston and for trumpets with rotors. Includes 2 backpack straps, mouthpiece pouch for 3 mouthpieces and 2 mute pouches. For Protec cases only.
NOTE: Can only be used on later model cases with hoops stitched into the sides of the case near the handle end. This style of case was introduced in Click here for photo of one of these hoops. If you lost yours, you can download a set of installation instructions in Acrobat format. The iPac features modular walls and padded fit blocks that can be endlessly reconfigured to accommodate your ideal mix of one ortwo instruments and accessories in one portable and protective unit. Appropriate for cornet, Bb, C, D, Eb or piccolo trumpets. Features include: Velcro 'quick-lock' closure Backpackable Backpack strap sold separately Lightweight shock absorb Features a water resistant sport nylon exterior, roomy exterior pocket with organizer, in-line skate wheels, telescoping handle and padded shoulder strap.
Quick-lock closure Includes padded shoulder strap and ID tag Lightweight shock absorb Protec iPac IPQ Trumpet Case, Quad Protec's IPAC cases feature modular walls and fit blocks that can be endlessly reconfigured to accommodate your ideal mix of instruments and accessories in one portable and protective unit. Features a water resistant nylon exterior, roomy exterior pocketwith organizer and padded shoulder strap. Protec Platinum Series PL Trumpet Gig Bag Platinum Series high performance gig bags are designed for pro musicians needing extreme protection, durability, mobility and organization.
Protec T1 Case Trolley Protec's lightweight 2-Section Trolley features a sturdy base that expands for bigger cases and adjusts to multiple heights. Reunion Blues Continental CRT4 Cornet Case All RB Continental cases feature a Ballistic Quadraweave exterior, quilted "double helix" velvet interior, high-strength corded edges and seams, and double-stitched with high tensile thread and reinforced at tested stress points.
Reunion Blues RBX Trumpet Case Reunion Blues has been making the world's best gig bags for almost 40 years, and the new RBX line represents a fusion of our passion for quality and the desire to make an affordable, lightweight, and protective case, perfect for musicians on the go. SKB Trumpet Case, Rectangular Standard rectangular form case commonly used by manufacturers for their student instruments. Brass Instrumentation Codes Following many of the titles in our Brass Ensemble catalog, you will see a set of five numbers enclosed in square brackets, as in this example: Description Price Copland Fanfare for the Common Man [ This is a special instrumentation adopted and perfected by the Philip Jones Brass Ensemble.
It consists of the forces In addition, there are often doublings in the Trumpet section - Piccolo and Flugelhorn being the most common. While this instrumentation has come to be common, it is still not "Standard" as many Brass Dectets use very different forces, most often with more Horns than PJBE.
Example 1 - Beethoven: [2,2,2,,2,0,0, tymp, ] The Beethoven example is typical of much Classical and early Romantic fare. And they took him. Put him on the racetrack. The losses mounted. Landowners were supposed to split the profits from the cotton fields with sharecroppers. But bales would often disappear during the count, or the split might be altered on a whim. If cotton was selling for 50 cents a pound, the Ross family might get 15 cents, or only five.
She ordered the suit by mail. The mailman arrived with the suit. The Rosses could not pay. The suit was sent back. Clyde Ross did not go to the church program. It was in these early years that Ross began to understand himself as an American—he did not live under the blind decree of justice, but under the heel of a regime that elevated armed robbery to a governing principle. He thought about fighting. Clyde Ross grew. He was drafted into the Army. The draft officials offered him an exemption if he stayed home and worked. He preferred to take his chances with war. He was stationed in California.
He found that he could go into stores without being bothered. He could walk the streets without being harassed. He could go into a restaurant and receive service. Ross was shipped off to Guam. He fought in World War II to save the world from tyranny. But when he returned to Clarksdale, he found that tyranny had followed him home. This was , eight years before Mississippi lynched Emmett Till and tossed his broken body into the Tallahatchie River.
The Great Migration, a mass exodus of 6 million African Americans that spanned most of the 20th century, was now in its second wave. The black pilgrims did not journey north simply seeking better wages and work, or bright lights and big adventures. They were fleeing the acquisitive warlords of the South.
They were seeking the protection of the law. Clyde Ross was among them.
He made a stable wage. He married. He had children. His paycheck was his own. No Klansmen stripped him of the vote. When he walked down the street, he did not have to move because a white man was walking past. He did not have to take off his hat or avert his gaze. His journey from peonage to full citizenship seemed near-complete.
Only one item was missing—a home, that final badge of entry into the sacred order of the American middle class of the Eisenhower years. The community was anchored by the sprawling Sears, Roebuck headquarters. But out in the tall grass, highwaymen, nefarious as any Clarksdale kleptocrat, were lying in wait.
Three months after Clyde Ross moved into his house, the boiler blew out. His payments were made to the seller, not the bank. And Ross had not signed a normal mortgage. In a contract sale, the seller kept the deed until the contract was paid in full—and, unlike with a normal mortgage, Ross would acquire no equity in the meantime. The men who peddled contracts in North Lawndale would sell homes at inflated prices and then evict families who could not pay—taking their down payment and their monthly installments as profit.
Ross had tried to get a legitimate mortgage in another neighborhood, but was told by a loan officer that there was no financing available. The truth was that there was no financing for people like Clyde Ross. From the s through the s, black people across the country were largely cut out of the legitimate home-mortgage market through means both legal and extralegal. Their efforts were buttressed by the federal government. In , Congress created the Federal Housing Administration. The FHA insured private mortgages, causing a drop in interest rates and a decline in the size of the down payment required to buy a house.
But an insured mortgage was not a possibility for Clyde Ross. The FHA had adopted a system of maps that rated neighborhoods according to their perceived stability. They were colored in red. Neither the percentage of black people living there nor their social class mattered. Black people were viewed as a contagion. Redlining went beyond FHA-backed loans and spread to the entire mortgage industry, which was already rife with racism, excluding black people from most legitimate means of obtaining a mortgage.
The devastating effects are cogently outlined by Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. In Chicago and across the country, whites looking to achieve the American dream could rely on a legitimate credit system backed by the government. Blacks were herded into the sights of unscrupulous lenders who took them for money and for sport. The kill was profitable. During this period, according to one estimate, 85 percent of all black home buyers who bought in Chicago bought on contract. Clyde Ross still lives there.
He still owns his home. He is 91, and the emblems of survival are all around him—awards for service in his community, pictures of his children in cap and gown. But when I asked him about his home in North Lawndale, I heard only anarchy. He was sitting at his dining-room table. His glasses were as thick as his Clarksdale drawl. So how dumb am I? I just left this mess. I just left no laws. And no regard. And then I come here and get cheated wide open. You could fall through the cracks easy fighting these white people.
And no law. But fight Clyde Ross did. Contract sellers used every tool at their disposal to pilfer from their clients. They scared white residents into selling low. They presented themselves as real-estate brokers, when in fact they were the owners. They guided their clients to lawyers who were in on the scheme. The Contract Buyers League fought back. They refused to pay their installments, instead holding monthly payments in an escrow account. Ross and the Contract Buyers League were no longer appealing to the government simply for equality. They were no longer fleeing in hopes of a better deal elsewhere.
They were charging society with a crime against their community. They wanted the crime publicly ruled as such. And they wanted restitution for the great injury brought upon them by said offenders. In , Clyde Ross and the Contract Buyers League were no longer simply seeking the protection of the law. They were seeking reparations. A ccording to the most-recent statistics , North Lawndale is now on the wrong end of virtually every socioeconomic indicator. In its population was , Today it is 36, The neighborhood is 92 percent black. Its homicide rate is 45 per ,—triple the rate of the city as a whole.
The infant-mortality rate is 14 per 1,—more than twice the national average. Forty-five percent of all households are on food stamps—nearly three times the rate of the city at large. Sears, Roebuck left the neighborhood in , taking 1, jobs with it. North Lawndale is an extreme portrait of the trends that ail black Chicago. Such is the magnitude of these ailments that it can be said that blacks and whites do not inhabit the same city.
When the Harvard sociologist Robert J. Sampson examined incarceration rates in Chicago in his book, Great American City , he found that a black neighborhood with one of the highest incarceration rates West Garfield Park had a rate more than 40 times as high as the white neighborhood with the highest rate Clearing. The lives of black Americans are better than they were half a century ago. The humiliation of Whites Only signs are gone. Rates of black poverty have decreased. Black teen-pregnancy rates are at record lows—and the gap between black and white teen-pregnancy rates has shrunk significantly.
But such progress rests on a shaky foundation, and fault lines are everywhere. The income gap between black and white households is roughly the same today as it was in Patrick Sharkey, a sociologist at New York University, studied children born from through and found that 4 percent of whites and 62 percent of blacks across America had been raised in poor neighborhoods. A generation later, the same study showed, virtually nothing had changed.
And whereas whites born into affluent neighborhoods tended to remain in affluent neighborhoods, blacks tended to fall out of them. This is not surprising. Black families, regardless of income, are significantly less wealthy than white families. The Pew Research Center estimates that white households are worth roughly 20 times as much as black households, and that whereas only 15 percent of whites have zero or negative wealth, more than a third of blacks do. Effectively, the black family in America is working without a safety net.
When financial calamity strikes—a medical emergency, divorce, job loss—the fall is precipitous. And just as black families of all incomes remain handicapped by a lack of wealth, so too do they remain handicapped by their restricted choice of neighborhood. Black people with upper-middle-class incomes do not generally live in upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The implications are chilling. As a rule, poor black people do not work their way out of the ghetto—and those who do often face the horror of watching their children and grandchildren tumble back.
Even seeming evidence of progress withers under harsh light. In , the Manhattan Institute cheerily noted that segregation had declined since the s. And yet African Americans still remained—by far—the most segregated ethnic group in the country. With segregation, with the isolation of the injured and the robbed, comes the concentration of disadvantage. An unsegregated America might see poverty, and all its effects, spread across the country with no particular bias toward skin color.
Instead, the concentration of poverty has been paired with a concentration of melanin. The resulting conflagration has been devastating. One thread of thinking in the African American community holds that these depressing numbers partially stem from cultural pathologies that can be altered through individual grit and exceptionally good behavior. It is also wrong. The kind of trenchant racism to which black people have persistently been subjected can never be defeated by making its victims more respectable.
The essence of American racism is disrespect. And in the wake of the grim numbers, we see the grim inheritance. The suit dragged on until , when the league lost a jury trial. Securing the equal protection of the law proved hard; securing reparations proved impossible. Board of Education and all that nonsense. The Supreme Court seems to share that sentiment. The past two decades have witnessed a rollback of the progressive legislation of the s. Liberals have found themselves on the defensive.
In , when Barack Obama was a candidate for president, he was asked whether his daughters—Malia and Sasha—should benefit from affirmative action. He answered in the negative. The exchange rested upon an erroneous comparison of the average American white family and the exceptional first family. In the contest of upward mobility, Barack and Michelle Obama have won. But that comparison is incomplete.
The more telling question is how they compare with Jenna and Barbara Bush—the products of many generations of privilege, not just one. In , the freedwoman Belinda Royall petitioned the commonwealth of Massachusetts for reparations. Belinda had been born in modern-day Ghana. She was kidnapped as a child and sold into slavery. She endured the Middle Passage and 50 years of enslavement at the hands of Isaac Royall and his son. But the junior Royall, a British loyalist, fled the country during the Revolution. Belinda, now free after half a century of labor, beseeched the nascent Massachusetts legislature:.
Belinda Royall was granted a pension of 15 pounds and 12 shillings, to be paid out of the estate of Isaac Royall—one of the earliest successful attempts to petition for reparations. At the time, black people in America had endured more than years of enslavement, and the idea that they might be owed something in return was, if not the national consensus, at least not outrageous. As the historian Roy E. Finkenbine has documented, at the dawn of this country, black reparations were actively considered and often effected.
In his book Forever Free , Eric Foner recounts the story of a disgruntled planter reprimanding a freedman loafing on the job:. In the 20th century, the cause of reparations was taken up by a diverse cast that included the Confederate veteran Walter R. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. But while the people advocating reparations have changed over time, the response from the country has remained virtually the same. Not exactly. Having been enslaved for years, black people were not left to their own devices. They were terrorized. In the Deep South, a second slavery ruled.
In the North, legislatures, mayors, civic associations, banks, and citizens all colluded to pin black people into ghettos, where they were overcrowded, overcharged, and undereducated. Businesses discriminated against them, awarding them the worst jobs and the worst wages. Police brutalized them in the streets.
And the notion that black lives, black bodies, and black wealth were rightful targets remained deeply rooted in the broader society. It is as though we have run up a credit-card bill and, having pledged to charge no more, remain befuddled that the balance does not disappear. The effects of that balance, interest accruing daily, are all around us. Broach the topic of reparations today and a barrage of questions inevitably follows: Who will be paid? How much will they be paid? Who will pay? But if the practicalities, not the justice, of reparations are the true sticking point, there has for some time been the beginnings of a solution.
For the past 25 years, Congressman John Conyers Jr. We would support this bill, submit the question to study, and then assess the possible solutions. But we are not interested.
But all we are talking about is studying [reparations]. As John Conyers has said, we study everything. We study the water, the air. This bill does not authorize one red cent to anyone. That HR 40 has never—under either Democrats or Republicans—made it to the House floor suggests our concerns are rooted not in the impracticality of reparations but in something more existential. The last slaveholder has been dead for a very long time.
The last soldier to endure Valley Forge has been dead much longer. A nation outlives its generations. We were not there when Woodrow Wilson took us into World War I, but we are still paying out the pensions. If George Washington crossing the Delaware matters, so must his ruthless pursuit of the runagate Oney Judge. The high point of the lynching era has passed. But the memories of those robbed of their lives still live on in the lingering effects. Indeed, in America there is a strange and powerful belief that if you stab a black person 10 times, the bleeding stops and the healing begins the moment the assailant drops the knife.
Ellington made eight records in , receiving composing credit on three including "Choo Choo".
I. “So That’s Just One Of My Losses”
Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra grew to a group of ten players; they developed their own sound by displaying the non-traditional expression of Ellington's arrangements, the street rhythms of Harlem, and the exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, high-squealing trumpets, and sultry saxophone blues licks of the band members. For a short time soprano saxophonist Sidney Bechet played with them, imparting his propulsive swing and superior musicianship to the young band members.
After recording a handful of acoustic titles during —26, Ellington's signing with Mills allowed him to record prolifically, although sometimes he recorded different versions of the same tune. Mills often took a co-composer credit. Whoopee Makers and the Ten Black Berries were other pseudonyms. In September , King Oliver turned down a regular booking for his group as the house band at Harlem's Cotton Club ;  the offer passed to Ellington after Jimmy McHugh suggested him and Mills arranged an audition.
At the Cotton Club, Ellington's group performed all the music for the revues, which mixed comedy, dance numbers, vaudeville, burlesque, music, and illicit alcohol. Here he moved in with a dancer, his second wife Mildred Dixon. Although trumpeter Bubber Miley was a member of the orchestra for only a short period, he had a major influence on Ellington's sound.
One side in particular, " Creole Love Call ", became a worldwide sensation and gave both Ellington and Hall their first hit record. An alcoholic, Miley had to leave the band before they gained wider fame. He died in at the age of 29, but he was an important influence on Cootie Williams , who replaced him.
From Vodery, as he Ellington says himself, he drew his chromatic convictions, his uses of the tones ordinarily extraneous to the diatonic scale , with the consequent alteration of the harmonic character of his music, its broadening, The deepening of his resources. It has become customary to ascribe the classical influences upon Duke — Delius , Debussy and Ravel — to direct contact with their music.
Actually his serious appreciation of those and other modern composers, came after his meeting with Vodery. That year, Ellington and his Orchestra connected with a whole different audience in a concert with Maurice Chevalier and they also performed at the Roseland Ballroom , "America's foremost ballroom". Australian-born composer Percy Grainger was an early admirer and supporter. Unfortunately Bach is dead, Delius is very ill but we are happy to have with us today The Duke". Ellington led the orchestra by conducting from the keyboard using piano cues and visual gestures; very rarely did he conduct using a baton.
By his orchestra consisted of six brass instruments, four reeds, and a four-man rhythm section. A complex, private person, he revealed his feelings to only his closest intimates and effectively used his public persona to deflect attention away from himself. Ellington signed exclusively to Brunswick in and stayed with them through late albeit with a short-lived —34 switch to Victor when Irving Mills temporarily moved him and his other acts from Brunswick.
Sonny Greer had been providing occasional vocals and continued to do in a cross-talk feature with Anderson. Radio exposure helped maintain Ellington's public profile as his orchestra began to tour. While the band's United States audience remained mainly African-American in this period, the Ellington orchestra had a significant following overseas, exemplified by the success of their trip to England and Scotland in and their visit to the European mainland. The British visit saw Ellington win praise from members of the serious music community, including composer Constant Lambert , which gave a boost to Ellington's interest in composing longer works.
Those longer pieces had already begun to appear. He had composed and recorded "Creole Rhapsody" as early as issued as both sides of a 12" record for Victor and both sides of a 10" record for Brunswick , and a tribute to his mother, "Reminiscing in Tempo", took four 10" record sides to record in after her death in that year.
It introduced Billie Holiday , and won an Academy Award as the best musical short subject. For agent Mills the attention was a publicity triumph, as Ellington was now internationally known. On the band's tour through the segregated South in , they avoided some of the traveling difficulties of African-Americans by touring in private railcars.
These provided easy accommodations, dining, and storage for equipment while avoiding the indignities of segregated facilities. Competition was intensifying, though, as swing bands like Benny Goodman 's began to receive popular attention. Swing dancing became a youth phenomenon, particularly with white college audiences, and danceability drove record sales and bookings. Jukeboxes proliferated nationwide, spreading the gospel of swing. Ellington's band could certainly swing, but their strengths were mood, nuance, and richness of composition, hence his statement "jazz is music, swing is business".
From , Ellington began to make recordings with smaller groups sextets, octets, and nonets drawn from his thenman orchestra and he composed pieces intended to feature a specific instrumentalist, as with "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges , "Yearning for Love" for Lawrence Brown , "Trumpet in Spades" for Rex Stewart , " Echoes of Harlem " for Cootie Williams and "Clarinet Lament" for Barney Bigard. In , Ellington returned to the Cotton Club, which had relocated to the mid-town Theater District. In the summer of that year, his father died, and due to many expenses, Ellington's finances were tight, although his situation improved the following year.
Mills though continued to record Ellington. After only a year, his Master and Variety labels the small groups had recorded for the latter , collapsed in late , Mills placed Ellington back on Brunswick and those small group units on Vocalion through to Billy Strayhorn , originally hired as a lyricist, began his association with Ellington in Ellington showed great fondness for Strayhorn and never failed to speak glowingly of the man and their collaborative working relationship, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine".
It was not uncommon for Strayhorn to fill in for Duke, whether in conducting or rehearsing the band, playing the piano, on stage, and in the recording studio. Some of the musicians who joined Ellington at this time created a sensation in their own right. Terminal illness forced him to leave by late after only about two years. Ben Webster , the Orchestra's first regular tenor saxophonist, whose main tenure with Ellington spanned to , started a rivalry with Johnny Hodges as the Orchestra's foremost voice in the sax section.
Additionally, Nance added violin to the instrumental colors Ellington had at his disposal. Privately made by Jack Towers and Dick Burris, these recordings were first legitimately issued in as Duke Ellington at Fargo, Live ; they are among the earliest of innumerable live performances which survive. Nance was also an occasional vocalist, although Herb Jeffries was the main male vocalist in this era until while Al Hibbler who replaced Jeffries in continued until Ivie Anderson left in for health reasons after eleven years: the longest term of any of Ellington's vocalists.
Once again recording for Victor from , with the small groups recording for their Bluebird label, three-minute masterpieces on 78 rpm record sides continued to flow from Ellington, Billy Strayhorn, Ellington's son Mercer Ellington , and members of the Orchestra. Louis Toodle-Oo ". Ellington and his associates wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices who displayed tremendous creativity. Ellington's long-term aim though was to extend the jazz form from that three-minute limit, of which he was an acknowledged master. In this, he was helped by Strayhorn, who had enjoyed a more thorough training in the forms associated with classical music than Ellington.
The first of these, Black, Brown and Beige , was dedicated to telling the story of African-Americans, and the place of slavery and the church in their history. Black, Brown and Beige debuted at Carnegie Hall on January 23, , beginning an annual series of Ellington concerts at the venue over the next four years. While some jazz musicians had played at Carnegie Hall before, none had performed anything as elaborate as Ellington's work.
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Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington's longer works were generally not well received. A partial exception was Jump for Joy , a full-length musical based on themes of African-American identity, debuted on July 10, , at the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles. Hollywood luminaries such as actors John Garfield and Mickey Rooney invested in the production, and Charlie Chaplin and Orson Welles offered to direct. Ellington objected in the interval, and compared Jeffries to Al Jolson. The change was reverted, and the singer later commented that the audience must have thought he was an entirely different character in the second half of the show.
Although it had sold-out performances, and received positive reviews,  it ran for only performances until September 29, , with a brief revival in November of that year. Its subject matter did not make it appealing to Broadway; Ellington had unfulfilled plans to take it there. The settlement of the first recording ban of —43 , leading to an increase in royalties paid to musicians, had a serious effect on the financial viability of the big bands, including Ellington's Orchestra.
His income as a songwriter ultimately subsidized it. Although he always spent lavishly and drew a respectable income from the Orchestra's operations, the band's income often just covered expenses. Musicians enlisting in the military and travel restrictions made touring difficult for the big bands and dancing became subject to a new tax, which continued for many years, affecting the choices of club owners.. As the cost of hiring big bands had increased, club owners now found smaller jazz groups more cost-effective. Some of Ellington's new works, such as the wordless vocal feature "Transblucency" with Kay Davis , was not going to have a similar reach as the newly emerging stars.
Ellington continued on his own course through these tectonic shifts.
While Count Basie was forced to disband his whole ensemble and work as an octet for a time, Ellington was able to tour most of Western Europe between April 6 and June 30, , with the orchestra playing 74 dates over 77 days. Ellington later presented its score to music-loving President Harry Truman. Also during his time in Europe, Ellington would compose the music for a stage production by Orson Welles.
In , Ellington suffered a significant loss of personnel: Sonny Greer, Lawrence Brown and, most importantly, Johnny Hodges left to pursue other ventures, although only Greer was a permanent departee.
Interview with Julian Zimmermann, natural baroque trumpet soloist
Tenor player Paul Gonsalves had joined in December  after periods with Count Basie and Dizzy Gillespie and stayed for the rest of his life, while Clark Terry joined in November During the early s, Ellington's career was at a low point with his style being generally seen as outmoded, but his reputation did not suffer as badly as some artists. Ellington's appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival on July 7, returned him to wider prominence and introduced him to a new generation of fans. The feature " Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue " comprised two tunes that had been in the band's book since but largely forgotten until Ellington, who had abruptly ended the band's scheduled set because of the late arrival of four key players, called the two tunes as the time was approaching midnight.
Announcing that the two pieces would be separated by an interlude played by tenor saxophonist Paul Gonsalves , Ellington proceeded to lead the band through the two pieces, with Gonsalves' chorus marathon solo whipping the crowd into a frenzy, leading the Maestro to play way beyond the curfew time despite urgent pleas from festival organizer George Wein to bring the program to an end. The concert made international headlines, led to one of only five Time magazine cover stories dedicated to a jazz musician,  and resulted in an album produced by George Avakian that would become the best-selling LP of Ellington's career.
According to Avakian, Ellington was dissatisfied with aspects of the performance and felt the musicians had been under rehearsed. Not until was the concert recording properly released for the first time. The revived attention brought about by the Newport appearance should not have surprised anyone, Johnny Hodges had returned the previous year, and Ellington's collaboration with Strayhorn had been renewed around the same time, under terms more amenable to the younger man.
The original Ellington at Newport album was the first release in a new recording contract with Columbia Records which yielded several years of recording stability, mainly under producer Irving Townsend , who coaxed both commercial and artistic productions from Ellington. His hope that television would provide a significant new outlet for his type of jazz was not fulfilled. Tastes and trends had moved on without him. Festival appearances at the new Monterey Jazz Festival and elsewhere provided venues for live exposure, and a European tour in was well received.
Such Sweet Thunder , based on Shakespeare's plays and characters, and The Queen's Suite , dedicated to Britain's Queen Elizabeth II , were products of the renewed impetus which the Newport appearance helped to create, although the latter work was not commercially issued at the time. The late s also saw Ella Fitzgerald record her Duke Ellington Songbook Verve with Ellington and his orchestra—a recognition that Ellington's songs had now become part of the cultural canon known as the ' Great American Songbook '.
Around this time Ellington and Strayhorn began to work on film soundtrack scoring. The first of these was Anatomy of a Murder ,  a courtroom drama directed by Otto Preminger and featuring James Stewart , in which Ellington appeared fronting a roadhouse combo. Film historians have recognized the soundtrack "as a landmark — the first significant Hollywood film music by African Americans comprising non-diegetic music, that is, music whose source is not visible or implied by action in the film, like an on-screen band. In the early s, Ellington embraced recording with artists who had been friendly rivals in the past, or were younger musicians who focused on later styles.
The Count Meets the Duke He signed to Frank Sinatra 's new Reprise label , but the association with the label was short-lived. Musicians who had previously worked with Ellington returned to the Orchestra as members: Lawrence Brown in and Cootie Williams in The writing and playing of music is a matter of intent You can't just throw a paint brush against the wall and call whatever happens art.
My music fits the tonal personality of the player. I think too strongly in terms of altering my music to fit the performer to be impressed by accidental music. You can't take doodling seriously. He was now performing all over the world; a significant part of each year was spent on overseas tours. Ellington wrote an original score for director Michael Langham 's production of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens at the Stratford Festival in Ontario, Canada which opened on July 29, Langham has used it for several subsequent productions, including a much later adaptation by Stanley Silverman which expands the score with some of Ellington's best-known works.
Ellington was shortlisted for the Pulitzer Prize for Music in but no prize was ultimately awarded that year. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young. In September , he premiered the first of his Sacred Concerts. He created a jazz Christian liturgy. Although the work received mixed reviews, Ellington was proud of the composition and performed it dozens of times.